jeudi, 05 juillet 2018 14:40 Écrit par  Leonarudo Nyangoma

Ijambo Leonardo Nyangoma, umukuru wa CNDD, ashikirije Abarundi kuri iyi sabukuru igira 56 Uburundi bwikukiye

    Barundi,
    Barundikazi,
    Bagumyabanga ba CNDD,

    Ndabaramukije amahoro, Iteka n’iterambere

    1. Uno munsi turamutse duhimbaza isabukuru, twibuka imyaka 56 Uburundi bwikukiye kw’igenekerezo ryo ku wa mbere Mukakaro 1962. Kuri uyo munsi twama twibukanije insiguro y’iryo jambo kwikukira kugira dusuzume intambwe igihugu cacu giteyeko mu kwikukira, mu kugendera intahe y'ubwigenge n'ingaruka nziza bijana.

    2. Twosubira kwibutsa gatoya yuko, co kimwe n’ibihugu nka vyose vyo muri Afrika, imbere y’umuzo w’abazungu, Uburundi bwari bufise intahe yuzuye yo kwigenga. Muti gute ? Uburundi cari igihugu ciyubashe, gifise imbibe. Intwaro ya cami yari itunganijwe kuva hasi gushika hejuru. Intwaro yari ifise ingabo z'umwami zakingira imbibe z'igihugu. Abarundi baragwanye n'inteko zitandukanye zo hanze kandi barazitsinze. Kuri Ntare Rugamba baratsinze aba Zulu bateye Uburundi bavuye hanze muri Afirika y'epfo. Mwezi Gisabo yaragwanije Abarabu ba Rumariza bari baje kugira abaja Abarundi arabatsinda.Yaragwanije Abadagi, ariko kubera bari bafise ibigwanisho bicira umuriro bikaze cane baratsinze ingabo z'Uburundi za Mwezi Gisabo, inyuma y'ingwano yamaze hafi imyaka umunani. Ni ho havuye « Amasezerano » yitiriwe aya « Kiganda »yateweko igikumu ku wa 06/06/1903 aho i Kiganda nyene.

    3. Abarundi bari batunzwe n'uburimyi n'ubworozi. Bararima bakimbura amahonda, imyumbati, ibijumbu vyinshi, ibigori, inumpu, ibiharage, ubwishaza, amatugu, impande, inkore, amasaka, uburo , ibitoke, intengwa, imyungu, imihiti, n'ibindi vyinshi vyagaburira igihugu inzara kikabaza. Ababishoboye, mu ntara zimwezimwe, barubakira imigina bakaraza utunyabobo n'iswa, kandi yari imfungurwa ngirakamaro ku magara y'abantu. Barorora inka, impene n'intama, inkoko n'ibindi bitungwa. Rimwe na rimwe haraba inzara yatewe n’uko imvura yataze, yaguye nabicanke inzige zahitanye imirima zikayirigita.

    4. Uretse kurima no kworora, Abarundi bari batunzwe n'imyuga, bari bafise inganda maze bagahingura ibikoresho bakeneye: isuka, imihoro, ibikutso, ivyakunze, impuzu, uburiri baryamako, intebe, imiti yabo ni iyo ibikoko…

    5. Ndetse Uburundi bwari bufise, umuco ushinze imizi kure cane iyo ba sokuru bamuka: hari hategekanijwe n'umunsi mukuru w'uburimyi mu mpera z'ukwezi kwa Kigarama wari rutura wahuza Abarundi bose ku kirimba, ari munsi w’umuganuro kandi wari ufise ihangiro rihambaye.

    6. Ku vyerekeye intwaro, umwami ari we sebarundi ntiyashobora gufata ingingo atumvirije abashingantahe n'abahanuzi biwe. Kandi n’iyo agize amakosa, abashingantahe barashobora kumubogoza akabumvira ; bakamusaba kwiha ubuki iyo binaniranye, kandi akabigirana iteka n'ukwihebera igihugu ciwe. Ubutungane ico gihe bwarakora neza gusumba ubw’ubu, abashingantahe ni bo buzuriza abatase, kuva ku ntahe yo ku mugina gushika ibwami.

    7. Abarundi bari bafise imico kama yabo, ururimi rwabo, intambo n'imvyino zabo zaranga Uburundi mbere n’ukuntu basenga Imana yabo batarinze kuvyigishwa na kavamahanga !

    8. Umutima wo gukunda igihugu n'ubumwe vyariho, kuko hagize abatera Uburundi bavuye hanze, ingabo z'umwami zarahaguruka zikamugwanya. Gushika kure hambere, aho iyo amatwi bidusumira, nta mushakashatsi n'umwe, aravuga ko ico gihe hoba harigeze haduka, ingwano zifatiye ku moko y'Abahutu n'Abatutsi, canke ku yindi mirwi nk'imiryango n'ibindi. Kanatsinda bavuga ko umwami ata bwoko yerekana ko yegamiye, yari hejuru y'amoko.

    9. Ariko rero ntawobideha, hariho n'ibikorwa bigayitse ndetse bibi intwaro yakorera abanyagihugu: kunyaga, kwangaza, gukumira imigwi imwe imwe, canke kugomerera ku muntu no kumushingamwo icumu mu gihe co kwimika umwami, n'ibindi. Abanyagihugu benshi nta matongo bari biganziye, bari abagererwa...

    Intwaro za Gikoroni.

    10. Intwaro za gikoroni, mu Burundi no mu bindi bihugu vyo muri Afrika zarasubije cane inyuma ubwigenge n’ubutunzi bw’ibihugu vyacu. Zaratwambuye ubuzima bw’abantu benshi bagandaguwe kubera biyamirije ako kagaye ko kurya imitsi abanyagihugu. Abahinga babizi bavuga yuko abanyafrika barenga imiriyoni ijana bahasize ubuzima bwabo, ivyo bikaba biri mu bikurubikuru, vyatumye iterambere rya Afrika rizingama, gushika no muri ibi bihe. Kuko burya, abarundi barayamaze bati, Itunga ni abantu. Izo ntwaro zaratwambuye ubwira n’ubuhinga Abarundi bari bazi, nko kwihingurira ibikoresho dukeneye, mu burimyi canke mu vy’ubworozi. Zaratwambuye imico kama yacu , ubumwe bwacu, mu guteranya amoko yahora yibanira ata wandya wangura .Zaratwambuye ukwiyemera, ku buryo n’ubu Abarundi, co kimwe n'Abanyafrika benshi, uhereye ku bize batiyemera, aho usanga ngo umuzungu atabonetse nta na kimwe twishoboreye. Ahandi na ho, bakinuba ibidandazwa bihinguriwe iwacu, kuvuga no gukoresha indi zacu kavukire, n'ibindi. Muribuka ingene ibitenge, canke impuzu zihinguriwe muri COTEBU vyari akaroruhore, ariko hari Abarundi wasanga babigaya, ucambaye bakavuga ngo yambaye COTEBU , bagaca bahurumbira ibivuye hanze. Ico twomenya tugatahura, izo ntwaro za gikoroni ntizari zizanywe no kuduteza imbere, zazanywe no kurondera amasoko abanyemari bazo bashoramwo ivyo bahinguriye iwabo, hamwe na canecane kurondera ubutaka, n'ibindi bikoresho amahinguriro yabo yari ahejeje kuvuka akeneye. Ico cari cazanye abazungu co kuyora, no gusahura amatungo y’ibihugu vyo muri Afrika, kandi ivyo basahuye n’ubu bakiriko, ni vyo vyatumye ubutunzi bw’ibihugu vyabo buzamuka ningoga gushika n'ubu. Ikindi cabazanye kwari kurondera abakozi ba gusa, bamwe bakabagira abaja, bakabafata, bakabadandaza muri Amerika n'ahandi, abandi bakabarimira amatongo banyaze abanyagihugu, maze ntibabahembe canke bakabahemba intica ntikize. Abakoroni rero ntibazanywe n’urukundo canke no kuduteza imbere, habe na mba; bazanywe no kurondera amaronko n’imari z’ibihugu vyabo.

    Intahe yo kwikukira :

    11. Uretse Hayiti na Liberiya (iki co kimwe na Ethiopia ntivyigeze ubukoroni nk'ubu turiko turavuga) kuva mu myaka ishira 1960, ni ho ibihugu vyinshi vyo kw’isi vyari bikandamijwe, canecane muri Aziya eka no muri Afrika vyikukira. Bimwe muri ivyo, vyabanje gufata umuheto. Twovuga nka Algeria, Zimbabwe, Angola, Viet Nam…. Ibindi na vyo, vyararonse intahe yo kwikukira bitabanje gufata umuheto. Ariko kwari ukubera igitsure ca ONU, ubukerebutsi bw'abanyagihugu batanguye kwihagararako banka ubukoroni, n’uko kandi ibihugu vy’abakoroni vyatinya ingwano. Ibihugu biri mu vya mbere vyikukiye, ni nka Misiri na Ghana. Vyarafashije cane ibindi vyariko biraharanira ukwikukira, n'Uburundi burimwo.

    12. Nkuko tubizi, Uburundi rero bwikukiye kw’igenekerezo ryo ku wa mbere Mukakaro 1962. Ni co gituma mubona twama twibuka uyo munsi uhambaye. Inyuma yaho, ibihugu nka vyose bimaze kwikukira muri Afrika, harakozwe ibitari bike. Abana benshi barashoboye kuja mu mashure, harimwo n'abo mu miryango itishoboye (kare ubukoroni bwigisha, nko muri Butare - Astrida- mu Rwanda, abari ku rushi kandi batowe mu miryango y'ubwami n'iyindi mikeya itonye !) ; harabaye iterambere mu vy’ubuvuzi, impfu z'inzoya zivutse canke abakenyezi mu gutanga ubuzima, eka muri rwinshi ziragabanuka ku rugero runiniya.

    13. Ariko, iyo ntahe y’ukwikukira ntiyaramye cane, kubera ubwa mbere hoho twikukiye dufise abize bake cane, abafundi canke abahinga bari ku rushi; ukuyemwo abanyamadini, u Burundi, nta bantu bashika batanu bari baramaze kaminuza. Ikigira kabiri, intwari zagiye abandi imbere, mu rugamba rw’uguhabuza ibihugu vyabo zaragandaguwe, abo batagandaguye barababuragije canke barabata mu mvuto. Twovuga nk’umuganwa Rudoviko Rwagasore iwacu (hamwe n'abo bafadikanije nka Mirerekano Paulo...), Patrice Lumumba i Kongo, Amilcar Cabral muri Guinée-Bissau, Sylvanus Olympio muri Togo, Umnyobe muri Cameroun, Sankara wa Burkina Faso, Khadafi wa Libia. Mandela bamutaye mu mvuto imyaka 27, Sekou Toure wa Guinée Conakry bamuhariye ivomo, ubutunzi bw’igihugu ca Guinée buratabagara. Abandi nabo barabakomboye, baciye mu nzira za Kudeta. Twovuga nk’intwari Nkrumah, Prezida wa mbere wa Ghana yashira imbere cane ubumwe bwa Afrika, Modibo Keita wa Mali, n’abandi. Abanka agacinyizo n'ubu baracahigwa buhongo, nka Laurenti Bagbo wa Cote d'Ivoire apfungiwe ubusa, azira kurondera kwikura gikoroni. Abo bagandaguye canke bakomboye, babasubiriza n’abategetsi bamwe twokwita ba n'iryo canke ndiyo bwana, bakora nk’abacangero b’abazungu. Abo ni nka ba Mobutu, Bongo, ba Compaore… Abandi benshi baciye batekerwa n’ubwoba baca batamba uko zivugijwe. Bakarazwa ishinga no kunyonyeza itunga ry’igihugu, bakaritahiriza mu mabanki y’ibihugu vy’ibikoroni, tutibagiye no gutoteza abo bose babakebura ku neza y’igihugu. Inyifato zabo ntaho zitaniye n’iz’abakoroni.

    14. Twihereyeko iwacu, intwaro y’abari ku butegetsi, mu bice vyinshi isa n’iy’abakoroni naho birirwa baravuga ngo bagomba kubikurako, bakitiranya ugufashanya hagati y’amakungu n’ubukoroni. Baratoteza bagatuma Abarundi benshi, bahungira mu bihugu bibanyi n'ahandi. Mwibuke rya kori ry’umutwe ku ntwaro za gikoroni, no kuri Repuburika ya mbere. Murabona n’ubu ko, intwaro y’icaduka ya Nkurunziza yarigarukanye, abicishije ku mayeri yo kwaka ku nguvu amahera y’amatora. Mu gihugu gitwawe neza ku neza ya bose, nta ngorane ivyo gutanga ikori bizana, kuko ngo nta kuzera inze ; ariko kuritanga ku gahato ku ruyeri ku rwenge kandi utazi n'iyo riherera ni ubusuma ! Abazungu barakubita ibiboko abanyagihugu biyamirije akarenganyo, n’ubu ngira murazi yuko ikiboko, c’imbonerakure gikaze gusumvya ic’abazungu. Gusahura itunga ry’igihugu no kuritahiriza mumahanga, kugurisha amasosiyete yotuma intahe y’igihugu ikomera nka COTEBU, Ikivuko ca Tanganyika, ONAPHA, n’izindi. Gutanga amasoko yo gucukura ubutare mu gipfungu, n’ibindi, tutiriwe turavuga ivyerekeye amatongo n'isi nyubakwa canke ndimwa. Ejo muzozinduka mwumva ngo, na Tanganyika yaragurishijwe (na Falcone barayiriye imera nk’iyibagiwe ; ariko barabesha igihugu ntigiheranwa).
    15. Ivyo rero vyarazingamitse iterambere rya Afrika n'Uburundi burimwo. Abazungu babandanije kuyora itunga kama, atacamira babifashijwemwo n’abo batware bahahamiye amaronko.

    16. Ikindi kibuze, ni ukwubaka inganda zotuma Afrika yikukira koko, ikareka kwama izera inze, inganda zihingura ivy’abanyagihugu bakenera mu buzima bwabo bwa minsi yose. Kandi abahinga bazo bariho, n'ubutaka turafise. Habuze ugushaka, kugamije kwikukira nyakuri.

    17. Vongeye, kubera ko Afrika ari yo ya mbere kw’isi mu butunzi kama, nk’ubutare bwa Coltan canke Cobalt, inzahabu, diamant, Uranium, ibitoro, n’ibindi bironderwa cane n’ibihugu vya rutura, ibihugu vyinshi muri Afrika vyama mu ngwano z’urutavanako, nk’uko mu vyibonera mu karere kacu; muri Sudani ya ruguru n’iyepfo (womengo bayimanyuririye ico!), aha hafi muri Congo duhana urubibe, muri Centrafrika, n'ahandi henshi … Ibindi na vyo bariko barabicamwo ivyibare, kandi tutameze magabo tuzova kuri 54 dushike ku no majana y'ibihugu vya Afrika, aho ibindi vyiyunga muri kino gihe. Ivyo ni vyo vyatumye Sudani y'epfo ivuka. Abahinga babisesangura, baranavuga yuko kubera isahuranwa ry’itunga kama kandi ry’imbonekarimwe riri muri Afrika, hashobora kwaduka iyindi ngwano y’isi yose. Mwomenya yuko ingwano z’isi yose canke izindi zose ziterwa no kurondera amaronko.

    Hakorwe iki kugira Afrika, Uburundi bishikire intahe yuzuye y’Ukwikukira ?

    18. Intahe y’Ukwikukira ku rugero rwo gusubirira abazungu mu vy’intwaro ntikwiye nk’uko tubibona muri ibi bihe. Intahe yibagiwe, kandi ari yo yotuma Afrika yikukira koko, ni iterambere mu vy’ubutunzi no kwubaka intwaro zibereye, kandi zitwararika kazoza n'imibereho y'abanyagihugu, bo bene igihugu. Duhereye ku burimyi n’ubworozi n’umuyagankuba, gushinga inganda zihingura umwimbu kama. Ivyo twimbura tubishore hanze, twabanje kubiduza agaciro ; na kare ngo utigaburira ntiyigaba. Harakenewe cane rero, nk’inganda zihingura imfungurwa, canke zikora ibikoresho abanyagihugu bakenera mu buzima bwa minsi yose, hamwe no gushobora kwiteza imbere. Ivyo rero ntibizoshoboka, kuko abadushize mu bukoroni babona ko bazotakaza vyinshi mu butunzi bwabo. Ni co gituma, intahe y’ukwikukira yokwunganirwa n’ubumwe mu banyagihugu, ubumwe hagati y'ibihugu gushamiranira bikagirwa umugani ; ubumwe n'umwumvikano bwa Afrika nk’uko umuhisi Prezida N'khrumah yavyerekanye, ariko abazungu n'ibikoresho vyabo baramugwanije ntiyabishikako. Abagerageje kubandanya uyo mugambi wiwe, hari canecane Khadafi na Sankara. N'khrumah yavuga ati « Ata bumwe hagati y’ibihugu vya Afrika vyubatse, intahe y’ukwikukira izoduca mu myanya y’intoke, kuko nyamwigendako bazomugondoza ku nguvu ». Yogeye ku vyiyumviro vya ba N'krumah, incabwenge nka Cheick Anta Diop wa Senegali n'abandi, yarerekanye neza yuko hakenewe Reta zunze ubumwe bwa Afrika, ifise inzego nka kurya kwa Reta zunze ubumwe bwa Amerika ; Reta ijejwe canecane ivyo imigenderanire n’ukwivuna umwansi, ibanki nkuru imwe n’ifaranga rya Afrika. Kandi ivyo birashoboka, vyotuma habungabungwa amahoro kw’isi nzima, kuko ata gihugu cokwubahuka gutera Afrika nzima, igihe yiyunze koko.

    19. Intahe y’ukwikukira ikomezwa kandi no kugaruka ku mico kama, ku ndimi zacu, imico yubahiriza ubuzima n'imiryango, ukwubaha ababurambere n'ugufasha uruvyiruko, ivyerekeye ukwemera bijanye n'ingene ba sokuru babona ubumenyi n'ibikikuje isi, n’ibindi. Ivyo bikazotuma twiyemera kuruta, kuko gushika ubu, nk’uko twamaze kubivuga, Abanyafrika benshi ntibiyemera, barindira ko umuzungu aza kubakorera vyose, kandi kenshi bize bimwe.

    20. Uwo mugambi w’Ukwikukira mu vy’ubutunzi, poritike n’imico kama, ntivyoroshe kuwushira mu ngiro kubera ko, burya « ukwikukira guhera mu mutwe » nkuko umuhinga Franz Fanon yabivuze. Mu gifaransa yavyise "décoloniser les esprits". Ni co gituma bisaba yuko, abiyumvamwo uwo mugambi, canecane mu migambwe, mu mashirahamwe, mu bategetsi, abahinga benshi, n’abanditsi n'abandi banyabwenge, tutibagiye urwaruka ari bwo Burundi na Afrika y'ejo, bowufata nkama, bakawigisha, bakawusigura, na canecane muri urwo rwaruka rwo mu mashure. Ariko kandi, tukazirikana cane yuko dutangura gukomeza ubumwe n’intwaro ibereye mu bihugu vyacu, ari na ho kwiyunga n’ibindi bihugu vyoca bishoboka, maze bikadushikana kuri iyo ntambwe y’ukwikukira kwa Afrika koko, kuko atawoshobora kwunga ibihugu bisanzwe ari ubunywenywe, intwaro zavyo ari ukwikunda gusa kw’abari ku butegetsi. Bantu mwese mwitwa ngo muramutswa igihugu, ari mu Burundi n'ahandi, kwikukira ku majambo gusa bituma muzohava ataco musize!

    21. Ukwo kwikukira ubugira kabiri rero, ni urugamba, ndetse rutoroshe na gatoya, kuko abawugwanya kenshi ubasanga mu bategetsi, bakorana canke bakoreshwa n’abanyamahanga mu bihugu vya rutura. Ugasanga n’abiyumvamwo urwo rugamba baragize ubwoba, batinya kuba nka ba Sankara canke Khadafi. Ariko, ngo akagumye bagumako, na canecane urugamba rwo kwikura mu buja.

    22. Mu gihugu cacu, intambamyi z’umugambi w’ukwikukira nyakuri zihari, ahanini ni iziva ku butegetsi buhari n'ubwahitiye, naho birirwa barata ishavu ku banyamahanga, ngo ni bo bababereye intambamyi mw’iterambere; barabesha. Ahanini ibikorwa bibi bakorera abanyagihugu, ntibabitumwa n’abanyamahanga, naho ata wohakana ko hariho abanyamahanga babakingira ikibaba, nko kunyegeza hanze amatungo basahuye mu kigega c’igihugu. Intahe rero yo kwikukira, kuva bagiye ku butegetsi mu 2005, yarasubiye inyuma cane, duhereye mu vya poritike, aho abanyagihugu batswe ijambo, abandi baricwa, abatishwe n’imbonankubone bakanyuruzwa, abandi kanganzwa bagahungu. Ubu, ubutegetsi bukaba butagihisha, yuko bugomba kugarukana intwaro y’umukazo y’umugambwe umwe, uvanga ivy’igihugu n’ivy’umugambwe wiganje ku butegetsi, tutaravuga ivyo kuvanga ivya poritike n’idini ry’uwitwa ngo arongoye igihugu. Turashigikiye ko umuntu asenga ivyo yishakiye ku burenganzira bwiwe, ariko ntidushigikiye kuvangatiranya vyose, canke guhatira abanyagihugu mw’idini ry’umukuru w’igihugu, ata n'uwuzi ivya ryo, nk’uko ingingo ya mbere y'Ibwirizwa Shingiro rya Ndamukiza 2005 (atari iryo baraye bafondafonze ku nguvu) rivuga ko Reta ata dini ishobora guhengamirako. Hambavu y’ivyo, itunga rigeze aho umwansi ashaka. Ibiharuro vyerekana, uko igihugu n’abanyagihugu bifashe birateye ubwoba, kuko usanga Uburundi bukwega umurizo, w’ibihugu vya nyuma bikenye kw’isi. Kanatsinda umwe wese avyibonerako mu mibereho yiwe ya minsi yose, abashobora gufungura gatatu, ndetse na kabiri ku munsi imfungurwa nzima usanga ari imparurwa. Ubuntu, ubumwe bw’Abarundi vyarahungabanye cane, kubera intwaro y'umukazo itwaririra ku bukunzi bw'inda, no kutabona kure.

    23. Tuboneyeho gutera akamo, Abarundi bose ngo twikebuke, turabo iyo twavuye n'amakuba twaciyemwo mu kwiganzura intwaro zose z'ibikenye, zazingiye igihugu mu buja ; twikebuke twikubite agashi, ari abatware babi canke abatwarwa bageramiwe, twibuke ko ubugabo bwihabwa, kandi ko uwigize agatebo bamuyoza umwavu.

    24. Abarundi bo nyene, bibuke intwari zarwaniye igihugu vy’ukuri ; babandanye guharanira intahe yabo y’ukwikukira nyako, mu kwiyamiriza bansumirinda, n'abangushi bari ku butegetsi, kugira mu mezi n'imyaka ibiri iri imbere, Uburundi buje ku murongo w’abaharanira, ubumwe n'ukwikukira nyakuri vya Afrika koko. Ubwo bumwe bukaba ari bwo bwonyene, buzotuma Afrika nzima yikukira ikagira igihagararo n’ijambo mu makungu. Nta nkeka ko, Afrika izoca yemererwa ndetse no kuja muri ya nama nkuru ijejwe umutekano y'ishirahamwe mpuzamakungu ONU. Erega Ubuntu burihabwa, kandi tutavuye hasi ngo tugire umugani ubwo busimbirahamwe n'ubwicanyi bwihekura, ntawundi azobitugirira ! Nsavye canecane urwaruka rwize amashure gukenyerera, no kugwanira umugambi wo kwikukira nyako

    25. Ndangije iri jambo nsubira kubipfuriza isabukuru nziza y’ukwikukira, nyakuri.

    Nti nitugire Amahoro, Iteka n’Iterambere, kuri twese!

    Leonarudo Nyangoma,
    Umukuru w’Umugambwe CNDD

    Les dernières actus

    
    Déclarations
    LES FAITS. 1. En date du 11 Octobre 2018, le Ministre de la Santé publique et de la lutte contre le SIDA, Thaddée NDIKUMANA accompagné des agents ...
    En savoir plus
    Déclarations
    Bagumyabanga, Barundi, Barundikazi mwese, Ndabaramukije amahoro, iteka n’iterambere! Ijambo rya mbere na mbere nagomba kubashikiriza ...
    En savoir plus
    Actualités internationales
    Avant l’adoption de la charte de l’OUA le 24 mai 1963, Nkwame N'krumah dira « nous devons nous unir maintenant ou périr ». Message de ...
    En savoir plus
    Déclarations
    I. INTRODUCTION La Médiation/Facilitation dans la crise burundaise vient d’inviter le CNARED-GIRITEKA, pour des consultations, après sa ...
    En savoir plus
    Actualités internationales
    Par l’Alliance des Forces Progressistes pour l’Afrique (AFPA) Juillet 2018 L'évolution démographique du continent africain est-elle ...
    En savoir plus
    Prev Next